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Extra info for A Grammar of Hinuq

Sample text

E. in fast speech the pharyngealization is almost inaudible or disappears completely. Some speakers do not pharyngealize at all. For instance, as already noted by Lomtadze (1963), pharyngealization in the adjective -Ü eži does not occur with all speakers. It is especially clear after the agreement prefix of the first gender Ø- [PQ EZi] and after the agreement prefix of the fifth gender/non-human plural r- [rQ EZi]. Some but not all of my young informants who are less than 20 years Consonants 27 old do not pronounce pharyngealized vowels in the native Hinuq words given in (20), but do pronounce them in Avar loan words (21).

Bokarev (1959: 112), Lomtadze (1963: 23), Imnajšvili (1963: 19), Kibrik & Kodzasov (1990: 330)). Only Khalilov & Isakov (2005) mention in addition a few more words that are also claimed to have pharyngealized vowels: Ü aši/Üaši ‘much, many, often’, gÜ aqi ‘bad’, Ü og ‘thigh’ and some more. However, most of these words are clearly not pharyngealized in my material. Looking at my own corpus, I found the native Hinuq words given in (20), which show some kind of pharyngealization. Most of these words alternate between /Pa/ and /Ü a/ at the beginning.

Ejectives are quite forceful. Therefore, the contrast between pulmonic consonants and ejectives is easily audible. All velar and uvular consonants occur in plain and labialized form. The syllable structure of native Hinuq words is CV(:/y)(C). Stress is not a particularly important category in Hinuq grammar and is often hard to identify. The category of gender plays an important role throughout the grammar of Hinuq. Nouns belong to five different genders, whose assignment is only partially based on the semantics.

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A Grammar of Hinuq by Forker, Diana

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