By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current examine presents a close description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language team. it's spoken through nearly 30,000 humans, consisting often of the ethnic team of the Idaksahak who're dwelling within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The e-book is split into 4 chapters giving an entire evaluation: the 1st brief bankruptcy offers information regarding the heritage of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological gains of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it truly is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. moreover, any verb root that's of Songhay foundation is suppleted whilst derived and a semantic identical of Tamasheq foundation takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization process used is determined by the etymology of the time period, a function paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and provides types of noun words. furthermore, the different sorts of easy clauses are handled in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization suggestions also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately advanced sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions whilst derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
G. 5) that /o/ also overrides vowels of other morphemes. 2 Noun and demonstratives asénda, áyda, adí, óoda Following the general rules of vowel-coalescence, vowel-final nouns that are followed by one of the determiners beginning with a vowel regularly lose their final vowel in favor of the vowel of the determiner. PROX you(pl) see this land (here)… (56) ni₌yy-igrá 2s₌understand h(e) adí? thing ANA [haˈdi] do you understand this? this youth jumped… (58) a₌báara 3s₌be guss(ú) hole he is in this hole.
1. (6) Examples with /n/ nín ándi anáf aɣíiwan ṇákaṛḍaf áṇayṇa yíṇḍǝb éewaṇ to drink you (pl) high grass tent camp to wriggle little bell throw an arrow shrub, sp. 16 ŋ only occurs in a few lexical items. In syllable-final position it is pronounced [ŋg]. 5 to eat cook (person) English to fall Liquids The liquid l is found in all positions. (8) Examples with /l/ lém yíli álkas áɣlal to twist to leave (tea) glass portable trough We have not found any examples of the pharyngealized liquid ḷ in syllable-final position except as part of a geminate.
4 Exceptions There are two words in the language that do not follow above rules of elision. One of them is the DET aɣo. g. PROX a₌ttén 3s₌arrive [ˈærwaˈɣojdǝ] after this man (here) arrived… When aɣo is the last element of a NP, as before relative clauses, the following pronouns keep their initial vowel and the final /o/ sound is also produced. g. (61) áʃʃaɣal aɣo a₌mmáy work DET 3s₌have nin 2s ka LOC the work he has for you is finished. a₌bbén. finished The other word with exceptional behavior is he ‘thing’, which keeps its final vowel when it is in subject position or when it occurs in a heavily marked head of a noun phrase.
A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali) by Regula Christiansen-Bolli