By Aidan Doyle
During this booklet, Aidan Doyle lines the heritage of the Irish language from the time of the Norman invasion on the finish of the twelfth century to independence in 1922, combining political, cultural, and linguistic historical past. The booklet is split into seven major chapters that target a particular interval within the heritage of the language; they each one start with a dialogue of the exterior heritage and place of the Irish language within the interval, earlier than relocating directly to examine the $64000 inner adjustments that happened at the moment. A heritage of the Irish Language makes to be had for the 1st time fabric that has formerly been inaccessible to scholars and students who can't learn Irish, and should be a beneficial source not just for undergraduate scholars of the language, yet for all these drawn to Irish historical past and tradition.
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Additional resources for A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence
Then there are languagespeciﬁc spelling rules. In the case of Irish, these were only established in the last hundred years. One convention is that short grammatical words like the or a are kept separate from other words. Thus an ‘the’ is separated from the noun that follows it, even though in speech the two seem to form a single unit. In MI we write an fear ‘the man’, not *anfear. In the manuscripts, though, it is not uncommon to ﬁnd the two written as a single word, and often the of an is written as , so that we get infear for MI an fear.
Beginning in the ﬁfth century, invaders from Ireland had settled in large numbers in Scotland. Christianity gained its ﬁrst foothold on the tiny island of Iona on the western coast, and spread from there to the south-western part of the country and the Highlands. A Gaelic kingdom was established in Scotland in the ninth century. Irish gave way to English in the south of the country in the twelfth century, but remained in the Highlands and Western Isles for many centuries after that, eventually becoming a separate language called Scots Gaelic.
In modern France, the Académie Française tries to regulate the French language, introducing various rules which accept certain linguistic forms and reject others. Ireland in the late Middle Ages did not have an academy of this sort, but it did have a highly organized and articulate literary class. These were the ﬁlí (pl of ﬁle). The word ﬁle is often translated as ‘poet’ or ‘bard’, but a ﬁle in the twelfth century was much more than a modern-day poet—he was more like a journalist, in that his task was to comment on current events which were of importance for his community.
A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence by Aidan Doyle