By E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. Benatova
E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. BenatovaA brief Grammar of Bulgarian for English talking beginners / Краткая грамматика болгарского языка для говорящих на английском языке О книге.Учебное пособие, включающее в себя самые важные аспекты современного болгарского языка.Modern Bulgarian is without doubt one of the South Slavonic languages, descendant of previous Bulgarian. a variety of later variations of previous Bulgarian are frequently often called previous Church Slavonic. glossy Bulgarian is now the legitimate general language of the Republic of Bulgaria.Bulgarian and Slavonic writing built after the production of the Cyrillic Alphabet within the ninth century (A.D.). Bulgarian is in truth the oldest Slavonic language which used writing for literary paintings and one of many oldest in Europe. The Slavonic literary culture flourished for numerous centuries within the Bulgarian lands and unfold to Serbia and Russia.Содержание книги:Some uncomplicated info in regards to the Bulgarian LanguagePrefacePart One PHONETICS (ФОНЕТИКА) Vowels (Гласни)Unstressed Vowels (Неударени гласни)Consonants (Съгласни)Palatal Consonants (Палатални съгласни)Stress (Ударение)Phonetic adjustments (Фонемни редувания)Metathesis (Метатеза)Part TwoMORPHOLOGY (МОРФОЛОГИЯ)I. Nouns (Съществителни имена)Gender (Род)Number (Число)Determination of Nouns (Членуване на съществителните имена)Use of the certain Article (Употреба на определителния член)Formation of Nouns (Образуване на съществителните имена)II. Adjectives (Прилагателни имена)Gender (Род)Plural of adjectives (Множествено число на прилагателните имена)The Use of the yes Article with Adjectives (Членуване на прилагателните имена)Degrees of comparability (Степени на сравнение)Formation of Adjectives (Образуване на прилагателните имена)III. Numerals (Числителни имена)Cardinal Numerals (Бройни числителни)Ordinal Numerals (Редни числителни)IV. Pronouns (Местоимения)1. own Pronouns (Лични местоимения)2. Possessive Pronouns (Притежателни местоимения)3. Reflexive Pronouns (Възвратни местоимения)4. Demonstrative Pronouns (Показателни местоимения)5. Interrogative Pronouns (Въпросителни местоимения)6. Relative Pronouns (Относителни местоимения)7. Indefinite Pronouns (Неопределителни местоимения)8. unfavorable Pronouns (Отрицателни местоимения)9. Generalizing Pronouns (Обобщителни местоимения)V Verbs (Глаголи)5.1.. type of Verbs (Класификация на глаголите)A. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (Преходни и непреходни глаголи)B. own and Impersonal Verbs (Лични и безлични глаголи)C. Non-Reflexive and Reflexive Verbs (Невъзвратни и възвратни глаголи)D. uncomplicated and Compound Verbs (Прости и сложни глаголи)5.2. Grammatical different types of the Verb (Граматически категории на глагола)1. individual and quantity (Лице и число)2. element (Вид на глагола)3. The annoying procedure (Глаголните времена)3.1. the current demanding (Сегашно време)3.2. The Imperfect prior (Минало несвършено време)3.3. The Aorist previous annoying (Минало свършено време -аорист)ЗА the best demanding (Минало неопределено време)3.5. The earlier excellent demanding (Минало предварително време)3.6. the longer term annoying (Бъдеще време)3.7. the long run long ago annoying (Бъдеще време в миналото)3.8. the long run excellent annoying (Бъдеще предварително време)3.9. the long run excellent some time past annoying (Бъдеще предварително време в миналото)4. Voice of the Verb (Залог на глагола)Formation of the Passive Voice (Образуване на страдателния залог)5. temper of the Verb ((Наклонение на глагола)5.1. The Indicative temper (Изявително наклонение)5.2. The central temper (Повелително наклонение)5.3. The Conditional temper (Условно наклонение)5.4. The Renarrated temper (Преизказно наклонение)6. Non-Finite Verb types (Нелични глаголни форми)6.1. Participles (Причастия)A. The energetic current Participle (Сегашно деятелно причастие)B. The energetic Imperfect earlier Participle (Минало несвършено деятелно причастие)С The energetic Aorist previous Participle (Минало свършено деятелно причастие)D. The Passive previous Participle ((Минало страдателно причастие)6.2. Verbal Adverbs (Деепричастия)6.3. Verbal Nouns (Отглаголни съществителни)6.4. The Infinitive (Инфинитив)7. Verb Formation (Образуване на глаголите)7.1. Derivation of Verbs of the Perfective point (Образуване на глаголи от свършен вид)7.2. Derivation of Imperfective Verbs (Образуване на глаголи от несвършен вид)7.3. Derivation of Verbs from different grammatical different types (Образуване на глаголи от други граматически категории)VI. Adverbs (Наречия)VII. Prepositions (Предлози)VIIL Conjunctions (Съюзи)IX. debris (Частици)Literature
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Extra resources for A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners
Chomsky was the Wrst to observe (in Chomsky 1964) a condition on the application of syntactic transformation that prohibited movement of an element of type A to a position B if the element of type A was dominated by another element of type A. This condition, schematized (in modern form) in (13a), came to be known as the A-over-A principle. The A-over-A principle straightforwardly accounts for contrasts like (13b–c). (13) a. *[A W]i . . [ . . [A Z [A ti]]] b. [PP From [PP under which bed]]i did John retrieve the book ti?
My point of departure there was the idea that elements are displaced for a reason (Chomsky’s (1986a, 1993) Last Resort condition on movement). 17 Elements contained in displaced constituents are 16 The most inXuential implementation of Uriagereka’s idea is to be found in Uriagereka (1999a), where complex left-branches are said to have been sent to the interfaces and linearized early. This is the idea of multiple spell-out, which has been incorporated into Chomsky’s (2000, 2001, 2004) phase-based model.
The eVect will be clearest if Move is represented as remerge, as we did in (2). The representation of this abstract example is given in (26). (26) X Y Z W P α Now suppose we Xip a to the other side of the ‘‘spine’’ formed by X-YZ-W (a symmetry transformation known as reXection around the axis X-Y-Z-W). We obtain (27), where it is now a that dominates the whole syntactic object. α (27) X Y Z W P Uriagereka’s original example, reproduced in (28)–(29), was slightly more complex in that it included an intermediate step of movement, and made use of the symmetry transformation known as rotation, 46 Outline of a General Theory of Locality as opposed to reflection.
A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners by E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. Benatova